The practice of short selling was probably invented in 1609 by Dutch businessman Isaac Le Maire, a major shareholder in the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC in Dutch).  Edward Stringham wrote extensively about the development of sophisticated contracts on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange in the seventeenth century, including short contracts.  Short selling can put downward pressure on the underlying stock and lower the price of shares in that security. This, combined with the seemingly complex and hard-to-follow tactics of the practice, has made short selling a historic target for criticism.  At various points in history, governments have restricted or prohibited short selling. What is the solution? Hold a diversified portfolio of stocks, bonds and commodities. An unexpected economic event, disaster or crisis triggers panic. For example, the 2008 stock market crash began on September 29, 2008, when the Dow Fell 777.68 points. This was the biggest loss of points in the history of the New York Stock Exchange at the time. Investors panicked after Congress failed to approve the bank bailout bill. They feared that more financial institutions would fail, as Lehman Brothers had done. As trading becomes more and more digital, flash crashes are usually triggered by computer algorithms and not by a specific message from the market or company that causes the quick sell. If the price continues to fall and more benchmarks are triggered, it can lead to a domino effect that triggers a sudden loss of value.
That being said, much more research is needed on flash crashes, including any evidence of fraudulent activity. Flash crashes are exacerbated by market spreads, such as.B. strong sales by high-frequency traders of one or more securities. Therefore, computer trading programs automatically meet these conditions and start selling large amounts of securities at an incredibly fast pace to avoid losses. In the past, when the holder of an option exercised his right, the transaction was settled and the share certificates were given to the holder. In the modern market, all settlements are made in cash, depending on the value of the underlying stock. Realigning a diversified portfolio is the best way to protect yourself from a crash. Even the most demanding investor will have a hard time recognizing a stock market crash until it`s too late. In the United States, the order to borrow a security before a short sale is called a locator. To avoid widespread failure in the delivery of securities, the U.S.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) introduced the SHO Regulation in 2005, which aimed to prevent speculators from short-selling certain shares before localizing. In September 2008, stricter requirements were introduced, allegedly to prevent this practice from exacerbating market decline. The rules were made permanent in 2009. Short selling is sometimes referred to as a “negative income investment strategy” because there is no possibility of dividend income or interest income. The shares are only held long enough to be sold under the contract, and the return is therefore limited to short-term capital gains, which are taxed as ordinary income. For this reason, buying shares (called “going long”) has a very different risk profile than short selling. In addition, the losses of a “long” are limited, because the price can only fall to zero, but the profits cannot, because there is theoretically no limit to the height of the price. On the other hand, the potential gains of the short seller are limited to the initial share price, which can only fall to zero, while the loss potential theoretically has no limit. For this reason, short selling is probably most often used as a hedging strategy to manage the risks of long investments. To learn more about stocks and investments, read the following CFI resources: A stock option seller is called an options writer, where the seller receives a premium from the contract purchased by the buyer.
Short positions can also be obtained through futures, futures or options, where the investor can assume an obligation or right to sell an asset at a future time at a price set at the time of contract creation. .